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See populaarne Briti komm saabub Ameerikasse

See populaarne Briti komm saabub Ameerikasse


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Briti maltalased Mars Candyst tulevad ametlikult USA -sse jaanuaris 2017

Kas Briti maiustused on tõesti paremad kui Ameerika? Uurime välja.

Linnased tulevad Ameerikasse. Ühendkuningriigil on aastakümneid õlal šokolaaditükk Briti maiustuste kvaliteedi üle Ameerika kommide kohal. Seal oli isegi tõsine kisa Ameerika Ühendriikide omanduses olevate Briti Cadbury kreemimunade kvaliteedi halvenemise tõttu eelmisel aastal.

Marsile kuuluvad British Maltesers on USA-s saadaval alates 2017. aasta jaanuarist, teatas Brand Eating. Need šokolaadiga kaetud linnasepallikommid võivad olla sarnased Hershey’s Whoppersiga, kuid maiustuste fännid panevad tähele tekstuuri ja maitse erinevusi.

Maltesers on saadaval 1,3-untsi singlitena (1,09–1,39 dollarit), 3-untsi teatrikarpides (1–1,70 dollarit), 3,52-untsetes kottides, 14,5-untsistes vannides (4,99–5,99 dollarit) ja 31,1 untsi vannides (9,48–9,99 dollarit) ).

Malteserid on juba veebis ja valitud kinodes saadaval, kuid pärast uusaastat jõuavad nad toidu- ja esmatarbekaupade riiulitele.


See populaarne Briti komm saabub Ameerikasse - retseptid

TRÜKITUD LOAGA

Neljaosaline sari Briti saartelt koloniaal-Ameerikasse suunduvate emigrantide suurimatest rühmadest. Need olid: PURITANID, kes tulid peamiselt Ida -Angliast Massachusettsi lahe kolooniasse aastatel 1629–1640, CAVALIERS JA SERVANTID, kes tulid peamiselt Lõuna -Inglismaalt Virginiasse aastatel 1642–1675 QUAKERS, kes tulid peamiselt Inglise Midlandid Pennsylvaniasse aastatel 1675–1725 ja ŠOTI-Iiri, kes saabusid aastatel 1717–1775 peamiselt Inglismaa/Šoti piirimaadest (mõnikord Põhja-Iirimaa kaudu) Virginiasse (Pennsylvania kaudu).

ALBIONI SEEMES viitas David Fischer sellele teisele sisserändajate rühmale kui "Hätta sattunud kavalerid ja sissetungijad". Kui me edasi läheme, arvan, et näete, miks. Need olid rühm inimesi, kes emigreerusid peamiselt Edela -Inglismaa maakondadest Gloucestershire'ist, Somersetist, Devonshire'ist, Dorsetist, Wiltshire'ist, Hampshire'ist ja paljudest teistest Chesapeake'i lahe piirkonda Virginias ja Marylandis aastatel 1642–1675, tippperiood oli 1650. aastatel. Selle migratsiooni põhjus oli natuke keerulisem. Puritaanid olid Inglismaal kontrolli saanud ja anglikaane kiusati nüüd taga. Nii et mõned lahkunud inimesed tegid seda religioosse tagakiusamise tõttu, täpselt nagu puritaanidel. Kuid mõne jaoks oli teisene motivatsioon. Inglismaa pärimisseadused andsid kogu kinnisvara pere vanimale pojale. Mõned neist, kes Inglismaalt lahkusid, olid "eliitperede" teine ​​või kolmas poeg, kes soovisid minna kohta, kus neil võiks olla oma maa.

Alguses meelitas Virginia religioosse taustaga inimesi. Kuid peamine religioon oli Inglismaa kirik (piiskoplik). Pärast seda, kui Virginiast sai kuninglik koloonia, võttis assamblee vastu seadused, mis muutsid Inglismaa kiriku Virginia osariigi kirikuks (1632). Mõne aja jooksul muutus eriusuliste religioonide isikutel Virginiasse üha raskemaks jääda.

Umbes 25 protsenti selle teise rände inimestest olid pärit inglise eliidist-neil oli Inglismaal rikkus, sotsiaalne seisund ja haridus. Nad olid anglikaani kiriku liikmed ja nad olid oma poliitikas kuninglikud. Ülejäänud 75 protsenti olid alamklassidest ja tulid teenistujatena, paljud kui julged teenijad, "kavalerite" rajatud suurtele istandustele. Need olid vaesed, kirjaoskamatud ja oskusteta. Kohe oli Virginias loodud klassisüsteem, mida polnud olemas ja mida poleks New Englandis heaks kiidetud. Selle rände ajal oli mehi rohkem kui 4–1 naisi. Suurem osa saabunutest olid vallalised mehed vanuses 15–24 aastat.

Perekonna tunded olid selles rühmas sama tugevad kui puritaanide seas, kuid sisult erinevad. Palju rohkem rõhutati laiendatud perekonda. Sama laiendatud perekonna liikmed kippusid kokku elama ja üksteise lähedale jääma. Elukohaüksuseks oli tuumaperekond, kuid ühinguks laiendatud perekond. Nad kogunesid naabruskondadesse ja matsid oma surnud perekondadesse. (Erinevalt Uus-Inglismaast, kus igas linnas olid ühised matmispaigad.) Mõisteid "vend" ja "sugulane" kasutati lõdvemalt-ja neid ei saa aruannetes alati sõna-sõnalt võtta. Majapidamiste hulka kuulusid sageli teenijad, ööbijad ja külalised. Kõiki koheldi perekonnana seni, kuni nad olid leibkonnas. Virginialased ei tundunud võõraste suhtes umbusklikud nagu uus -inglased.

Virginias kippusid pered olema väiksemad-peamiselt seetõttu, et suremus oli palju suurem. Samadel põhjustel oli astmelisi suhteid rohkem. See rühm jagas puritaanide tugevat kohustust abielluda. Poissmehed ja spinnid mõisteti ebaloomulikeks ja ühiskonnale ohtlikeks. Kuid abielu ei olnud leping, kuna Uus -Inglismaal oli see lahutamatu liit, püha sõlm, mida ei saanud lahti teha. Kõik abielud sõlmiti riigikirikus (anglikaani keeles) ja lahutust ei lubatud. Abiellumiseks tuli teha viis vajalikku sammu: abielu, keeld, ususeremoonia, abielupidu, seksuaalne lõpuleviimine. Vaja oli vanemate kirjalikku luba. Armastust ei peetud vajalikuks enne abiellumist. Kui seda varem ei esinenud, eeldati, et see järgneb. Vanematel oli aktiivne roll abieluotsuste tegemisel, kuid nad ei sundinud last tavaliselt vastu tema tahtmist abielluma. Esimese sugulase abielud olid Virginias korras ja neid juhtus sageli. See järgis nende mustrit "hoia seda perekonnas". Abielupeod olid keerukad-erinevalt Uus-Inglismaast, kus neid ei lubatud. Meeste keskmine abiellumisvanus oli umbes sama, mis Uus-Inglismaal, 25–26, kuid naiste puhul oli see noorem, 18–20. Mõned mehed ei abiellunud, sest lihtsalt polnud piisavalt naisi, kes ringi käisid. Seksuaalsed suhted pidid piirduma abieluga, kuid karistused ei olnud nii karmid kui Uus -Inglismaal ja naisi karistati karmimalt kui mehi.

Laste nimetamismustrid järgisid Edela -Inglismaa kombeid. Lapsi nimetati sageli pereliikmete järgi, kuid erinevas mustris kui Uus -Inglismaal. Vanim poeg sai nime isapoolse vanaisa järgi, järgmine poeg emapoolse vanaisa järgi, järgmisena isa. Tüdrukute puhul kasutati sama mustrit. Nad kasutasid vähem piibellikke nimesid kui Uus-Inglismaal ja nimetasid sageli lapsi kuningate ja rüütlite jaoks-lemmikud olid Robert, Richard, Edward, George ja Charles. Samuti kasutasid nad kristlike pühakute nimesid, keda Piiblist ei leidu, ja inglise rahvapäraseid nimesid-lemmikud olid Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances ja Alice. Kuid piibellikud Maarja, Elizabethi ja Saara nimed olid sama populaarsed kui Uus -Inglismaal. Harjutati väikelaste ristimist.

Virginia vanemad olid leebemad kui New Englandi vanemad. Lapsi julgustati tegelikult olema tahtejõulised, kuid eeldati, et nad järgivad ka üsna keerukaid enesehinnangurituaale. Vanema patriarhi idee oli väga tugev ja seda ümbritses ka palju rituaale. Koole oli vähe. Eliitklassi lapsed said kodus hariduse ja vaesed jäid kirjaoskamatuteks. Alevikke polnud nagu Uus -Inglismaal. Inimesed asusid istandustele ja seal olid väikesed turukülad.

Parim ülestähenduste allikas on piiskoplik kirik, kus registreeriti kõik ristimised, abielud ja surmad. Oli umbes 100 -aastane periood, kus kõik pidid riigikirikus neid asju tegema, isegi kui mitte liikmed.

Kui soovite neid rühmi põhjalikumalt uurida, soovitan teil lugeda raamatut ALBIONI SEEMT: NELI BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, autor David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Suur osa (kuid mitte kõik) selles materjalis "Retsept" on sellest raamatust.


See populaarne Briti komm saabub Ameerikasse - retseptid

TRÜKITUD LOAGA

Neljaosaline sari Briti saartelt koloniaal-Ameerikasse suunduvate emigrantide suurimatest rühmadest. Need olid: PURITANID, kes tulid peamiselt Ida -Angliast Massachusettsi lahe kolooniasse aastatel 1629–1640, CAVALIERS JA SERVANTID, kes tulid peamiselt Lõuna -Inglismaalt Virginiasse aastatel 1642–1675 QUAKERS, kes tulid peamiselt Inglise Midlandid Pennsylvaniasse aastatel 1675–1725 ja ŠOTI-Iiri, kes saabusid aastatel 1717–1775 peamiselt Inglismaa/Šoti piirimaadest (mõnikord Põhja-Iirimaa kaudu) Virginiasse (Pennsylvania kaudu).

ALBIONI SEEMES viitas David Fischer sellele teisele sisserändajate rühmale kui "Hätta sattunud kavalerid ja sissetungijad". Kui me edasi läheme, arvan, et näete, miks. Need olid rühm inimesi, kes emigreerusid peamiselt Edela -Inglismaa maakondadest Gloucestershire'ist, Somersetist, Devonshire'ist, Dorsetist, Wiltshire'ist, Hampshire'ist ja paljudest teistest Chesapeake'i lahe piirkonda Virginias ja Marylandis ajavahemikul 1642–1675, tippaeg oli 1650. aastatel. Selle migratsiooni põhjus oli natuke keerulisem. Puritaanid olid Inglismaal kontrolli saanud ja anglikaane kiusati nüüd taga. Nii et mõned lahkunud inimesed tegid seda religioosse tagakiusamise tõttu, täpselt nagu puritaanid. Kuid mõne jaoks oli teisene motivatsioon. Inglismaa pärimisseadused andsid kogu kinnisvara pere vanimale pojale. Mõned neist, kes Inglismaalt lahkusid, olid "eliitperede" teine ​​või kolmas poeg, kes soovisid minna kohta, kus neil võiks olla oma maa.

Alguses meelitas Virginia religioosse taustaga inimesi. Kuid peamine religioon oli Inglismaa kirik (piiskoplik). Pärast seda, kui Virginiast sai kuninglik koloonia, võttis assamblee vastu seadused, mis muutsid Inglismaa kiriku Virginia osariigi kirikuks (1632). Mõne aja jooksul muutus eriusuliste religioonide isikutel Virginiasse üha raskemaks jääda.

Umbes 25 protsenti selle teise rände inimestest olid pärit inglise eliidist-neil oli Inglismaal rikkus, sotsiaalne seisund ja haridus. Nad olid anglikaani kiriku liikmed ja nad olid oma poliitikas kuninglikud. Ülejäänud 75 protsenti olid alamklassidest ja tulid teenistujatena, paljud kui julged teenijad, "kavalerite" rajatud suurtele istandustele. Need olid vaesed, kirjaoskamatud ja oskusteta. Kohe oli Virginias loodud klassisüsteem, mida polnud olemas ja mida poleks New Englandis heaks kiidetud. Selle rände ajal oli mehi rohkem kui 4–1 naisi. Suurem osa saabunutest olid vallalised mehed vanuses 15–24 aastat.

Perekonna tunded olid selles rühmas sama tugevad kui puritaanide seas, kuid sisult erinevad. Palju rohkem rõhutati laiendatud perekonda. Sama laiendatud perekonna liikmed kippusid kokku elama ja üksteise lähedale jääma. Elukohaüksuseks oli tuumaperekond, kuid ühinguks laiendatud perekond. Nad kogunesid naabruskondadesse ja matsid oma surnud perekondadesse. (Erinevalt Uus-Inglismaast, kus igas linnas olid ühised matmispaigad.) Mõisteid "vend" ja "sugulane" kasutati lõdvemalt-ja neid ei saa aruannetes alati sõna-sõnalt võtta. Majapidamiste hulka kuulusid sageli teenijad, ööbijad ja külalised. Kõiki koheldi perekonnana seni, kuni nad olid leibkonnas. Virginialased ei tundunud võõraste suhtes umbusklikud nagu uus -inglased.

Virginias kippusid pered olema väiksemad-peamiselt seetõttu, et suremus oli palju suurem. Samadel põhjustel oli astmelisi suhteid rohkem. See rühm jagas puritaanide tugevat kohustust abielluda. Poissmehed ja spinnid mõisteti ebaloomulikeks ja ühiskonnale ohtlikeks. Kuid abielu ei olnud leping, kuna Uus -Inglismaal oli see lahutamatu liit, püha sõlm, mida ei saanud lahti teha. Kõik abielud sõlmiti riigikirikus (anglikaani keeles) ja lahutust ei lubatud. Abiellumiseks tuli teha viis vajalikku sammu: abielu, keeld, ususeremoonia, abielupidu, seksuaalne lõpuleviimine. Vaja oli vanemate kirjalikku luba. Armastust ei peetud vajalikuks enne abiellumist. Kui seda varem ei esinenud, eeldati, et see järgneb. Vanematel oli aktiivne roll abieluotsuste tegemisel, kuid nad ei sundinud last tavaliselt vastu tema tahtmist abielluma. Esimese sugulase abielud olid Virginias korras ja neid juhtus sageli. See järgis nende mustrit "hoia seda perekonnas". Abielupeod olid keerukad-erinevalt Uus-Inglismaast, kus neid ei lubatud. Meeste keskmine abiellumisvanus oli umbes sama, mis Uus-Inglismaal, 25–26, kuid naiste puhul oli see noorem, 18–20. Mõned mehed ei abiellunud, sest lihtsalt polnud piisavalt naisi, kes ringi käisid. Seksuaalsed suhted pidid piirduma abieluga, kuid karistused ei olnud nii karmid kui Uus -Inglismaal ja naisi karistati karmimalt kui mehi.

Laste nimetamismustrid järgisid Edela -Inglismaa kombeid. Lapsi nimetati sageli pereliikmete järgi, kuid erinevas mustris kui Uus -Inglismaal. Vanim poeg sai nime isapoolse vanaisa järgi, järgmine poeg emapoolse vanaisa järgi, järgmisena isa. Tüdrukute puhul kasutati sama mustrit. Nad kasutasid vähem piibellikke nimesid kui Uus-Inglismaal ja nimetasid sageli lapsi kuningate ja rüütlite jaoks-lemmikud olid Robert, Richard, Edward, George ja Charles. Samuti kasutasid nad kristlike pühakute nimesid, keda Piiblist ei leidu, ja inglise rahvapäraseid nimesid-lemmikud olid Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances ja Alice. Kuid piibellikud Maarja, Elizabethi ja Saara nimed olid sama populaarsed kui Uus -Inglismaal. Harjutati väikelaste ristimist.

Virginia vanemad olid leebemad kui New Englandi vanemad. Lapsi julgustati tegelikult olema tahtejõulised, kuid eeldati, et nad järgivad ka üsna keerukaid enesepiiramise rituaale. Vanema patriarhi idee oli väga tugev ja seda ümbritses ka palju rituaale. Koole oli vähe. Eliitklassi lapsed said kodus hariduse ja vaesed jäid kirjaoskamatuteks. Alevikke polnud nagu Uus -Inglismaal. Inimesed asusid istandustele ja seal olid väikesed turukülad.

Parim ülestähenduste allikas on piiskoplik kirik, kus registreeriti kõik ristimised, abielud ja surmad. Oli umbes 100 -aastane periood, kus kõik pidid riigikirikus neid asju tegema, isegi kui mitte liikmed.

Kui soovite neid rühmi põhjalikumalt uurida, soovitan teil lugeda raamatut ALBIONI SEEMT: NELI BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, autor David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Suur osa (kuid mitte kõik) selles materjalis "Retsept" on sellest raamatust.


See populaarne Briti komm saabub Ameerikasse - retseptid

TRÜKITUD LOAGA

Neljaosaline sari Briti saartelt koloniaal-Ameerikasse suunduvate emigrantide suurimatest rühmadest. Need olid: PURITANID, kes tulid peamiselt Ida -Angliast Massachusettsi lahe kolooniasse aastatel 1629–1640, CAVALIERS JA SERVANTID, kes tulid peamiselt Lõuna -Inglismaalt Virginiasse aastatel 1642–1675 QUAKERS, kes tulid peamiselt Inglise Midlandid Pennsylvaniasse aastatel 1675–1725 ja ŠOTI-Iiri, kes saabusid aastatel 1717–1775 peamiselt Inglismaa/Šoti piirimaadest (mõnikord Põhja-Iirimaa kaudu) Virginiasse (Pennsylvania kaudu).

ALBIONI SEEMES viitas David Fischer sellele teisele sisserändajate rühmale kui "Hätta sattunud kavalerid ja sissetungijad". Kui me läheme, arvan, et näete, miks. Need olid rühm inimesi, kes emigreerusid peamiselt Edela -Inglismaa maakondadest Gloucestershire'ist, Somersetist, Devonshire'ist, Dorsetist, Wiltshire'ist, Hampshire'ist ja paljudest teistest Chesapeake'i lahe piirkonda Virginias ja Marylandis aastatel 1642–1675, tippperiood oli 1650. aastatel. Selle migratsiooni põhjus oli natuke keerulisem. Puritaanid olid Inglismaal kontrolli saanud ja anglikaane kiusati nüüd taga. Nii et mõned lahkunud inimesed tegid seda religioosse tagakiusamise tõttu, täpselt nagu puritaanidel. Kuid mõne jaoks oli teisene motivatsioon. Inglismaa pärimisseadused andsid kogu kinnisvara pere vanimale pojale. Mõned neist, kes Inglismaalt lahkusid, olid "eliitperede" teine ​​või kolmas poeg, kes soovisid minna kohta, kus neil võiks olla oma maa.

Alguses meelitas Virginia religioosse taustaga inimesi. Kuid peamine religioon oli Inglismaa kirik (piiskoplik). Pärast seda, kui Virginiast sai kuninglik koloonia, võttis assamblee vastu seadused, mis muutsid Inglismaa kiriku Virginia osariigi kirikuks (1632). Mõne aja jooksul muutus eriusuliste religioonide isikutel Virginiasse üha raskemaks jääda.

Umbes 25 protsenti selle teise rände inimestest olid pärit inglise eliidist-neil oli Inglismaal rikkus, sotsiaalne seisund ja haridus. Nad olid anglikaani kiriku liikmed ja nad olid oma poliitikas kuninglikud. Ülejäänud 75 protsenti olid alamklassidest ja tulid teenistujatena, paljud kui julged teenijad, "kavalerite" rajatud suurtele istandustele. Need olid vaesed, kirjaoskamatud ja oskusteta. Kohe oli Virginias loodud klassisüsteem, mida polnud olemas ja mida poleks New Englandis heaks kiidetud. Selle rände ajal oli mehi rohkem kui 4–1 naisi. Suurem osa saabunutest olid vallalised mehed vanuses 15–24 aastat.

Perekonna tunded olid selles rühmas sama tugevad kui puritaanide seas, kuid sisult erinevad. Palju rohkem rõhutati laiendatud perekonda. Sama laiendatud perekonna liikmed kippusid kokku elama ja üksteise lähedusse jääma. Elukohaüksuseks oli tuumaperekond, kuid ühinguks laiendatud perekond. Nad kogunesid naabruskondadesse ja matsid oma surnud perekondadesse. (Erinevalt Uus-Inglismaast, kus igas linnas olid ühised matmispaigad.) Mõisteid "vend" ja "sugulane" kasutati lõdvemalt-ja neid ei saa aruannetes alati sõna-sõnalt võtta. Majapidamiste hulka kuulusid sageli teenijad, ööbijad ja külalised. Kõiki koheldi perekonnana seni, kuni nad olid leibkonnas. Virginialased ei tundunud võõraste suhtes umbusklikud nagu uus -inglased.

Virginias kippusid pered olema väiksemad-peamiselt seetõttu, et suremus oli palju suurem. Samadel põhjustel oli astmelisi suhteid rohkem. See rühm jagas puritaanide tugevat kohustust abielluda. Poissmehed ja spinnid mõisteti ebaloomulikeks ja ühiskonnale ohtlikeks. Kuid abielu ei olnud leping, kuna Uus -Inglismaal oli see lahutamatu liit, püha sõlm, mida ei saanud lahti teha. Kõik abielud sõlmiti riigikirikus (anglikaani keeles) ja lahutust ei lubatud. Abiellumiseks tuli teha viis vajalikku sammu: abielu, keelud, usutseremoonia, abielupidu, seksuaalne lõpuleviimine. Vaja oli vanemate kirjalikku luba. Armastust ei peetud vajalikuks enne abiellumist. Kui seda varem ei esinenud, eeldati, et see järgneb. Vanematel oli aktiivne roll abieluotsuste tegemisel, kuid nad ei sundinud last tavaliselt vastu tema tahtmist abielluma. Esimese sugulase abielud olid Virginias korras ja neid juhtus sageli. See järgis nende mustrit "hoia seda perekonnas". Abielupeod olid keerukad-erinevalt Uus-Inglismaast, kus neid ei lubatud. Meeste keskmine abiellumisvanus oli umbes sama, mis Uus-Inglismaal, 25–26, kuid naiste puhul oli see noorem, 18–20. Mõned mehed ei abiellunud, sest lihtsalt polnud piisavalt naisi, kes ringi käisid. Seksuaalsed suhted pidid piirduma abieluga, kuid karistused ei olnud nii karmid kui Uus -Inglismaal ja naisi karistati karmimalt kui mehi.

Laste nimetamismustrid järgisid Edela -Inglismaa kombeid. Lapsi nimetati sageli pereliikmete järgi, kuid erinevas mustris kui Uus -Inglismaal. Vanim poeg sai nime isapoolse vanaisa järgi, järgmine poeg emapoolse vanaisa järgi, järgmisena isa. Tüdrukute puhul kasutati sama mustrit. Nad kasutasid vähem piibellikke nimesid kui Uus-Inglismaal ja nimetasid sageli lapsi kuningate ja rüütlite jaoks-lemmikud olid Robert, Richard, Edward, George ja Charles. Samuti kasutasid nad kristlike pühakute nimesid, keda Piiblist ei leidu, ja inglise rahvapäraseid nimesid-lemmikud olid Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances ja Alice. Kuid piibellikud Maarja, Elizabethi ja Saara nimed olid sama populaarsed kui Uus -Inglismaal. Harjutati väikelaste ristimist.

Virginia vanemad olid leebemad kui New Englandi vanemad. Lapsi julgustati tegelikult olema tahtejõulised, kuid eeldati, et nad järgivad ka üsna keerukaid enesehinnangurituaale. Vanema patriarhi idee oli väga tugev ja seda ümbritses ka palju rituaale. Koole oli vähe. Eliitklassi lapsed said kodus hariduse ja vaesed jäid kirjaoskamatuteks. Alevikke polnud nagu Uus -Inglismaal. Inimesed asusid istandustele ja seal olid väikesed turukülad.

Parim ülestähenduste allikas on piiskoplik kirik, kus registreeriti kõik ristimised, abielud ja surmad. Oli umbes 100 -aastane periood, kus kõik pidid riigikirikus neid asju tegema, isegi kui mitte liikmed.

Kui soovite neid rühmi põhjalikumalt uurida, soovitan teil lugeda raamatut ALBIONI SEEMT: NELI BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, autor David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Suur osa (kuid mitte kõik) selles materjalis "Retsept" on sellest raamatust.


See populaarne Briti komm saabub Ameerikasse - retseptid

TRÜKITUD LOAGA

Neljaosaline sari Briti saartelt koloniaal-Ameerikasse suunduvate emigrantide suurimatest rühmadest. Need olid: PURITANID, kes tulid peamiselt Ida -Angliast Massachusettsi lahe kolooniasse aastatel 1629–1640, CAVALIERS JA SERVANTID, kes tulid peamiselt Lõuna -Inglismaalt Virginiasse aastatel 1642–1675 QUAKERS, kes tulid peamiselt Inglise Midlandid Pennsylvaniasse aastatel 1675–1725 ja ŠOTI-Iiri, kes saabusid aastatel 1717–1775 peamiselt Inglismaa/Šoti piirimaadest (mõnikord Põhja-Iirimaa kaudu) Virginiasse (Pennsylvania kaudu).

ALBIONI SEEMES viitas David Fischer sellele teisele sisserändajate rühmale kui "Hätta sattunud kavalerid ja sissetungijad". Kui me edasi läheme, arvan, et näete, miks. Need olid rühm inimesi, kes emigreerusid peamiselt Edela -Inglismaa maakondadest Gloucestershire'ist, Somersetist, Devonshire'ist, Dorsetist, Wiltshire'ist, Hampshire'ist ja paljudest teistest Chesapeake'i lahe piirkonda Virginias ja Marylandis ajavahemikul 1642–1675, tippaeg oli 1650. aastatel. Selle migratsiooni põhjus oli natuke keerulisem. Puritaanid olid Inglismaal kontrolli saanud ja anglikaane kiusati nüüd taga. Nii et mõned lahkunud inimesed tegid seda religioosse tagakiusamise tõttu, täpselt nagu puritaanid. Kuid mõne jaoks oli teisene motivatsioon. Inglismaa pärimisseadused andsid kogu kinnisvara pere vanimale pojale. Mõned neist, kes Inglismaalt lahkusid, olid eliitperede teine ​​või kolmas poeg, kes soovisid minna kohta, kus neil võiks olla oma maa.

Alguses meelitas Virginia religioosse taustaga inimesi. Kuid peamine religioon oli Inglismaa kirik (piiskoplik). Pärast seda, kui Virginiast sai kuninglik koloonia, võttis assamblee vastu seadused, mis muutsid Inglismaa kiriku Virginia osariigi kirikuks (1632). Mõne aja jooksul muutus eriusuliste religioonide isikutel Virginiasse üha raskemaks jääda.

Umbes 25 protsenti selle teise rände inimestest olid pärit inglise eliidist-neil oli Inglismaal rikkus, sotsiaalne seisund ja haridus. Nad olid anglikaani kiriku liikmed ja nad olid oma poliitikas kuninglikud. Ülejäänud 75 protsenti olid alamklassidest ja tulid teenistujatena, paljud kui julged teenijad, "kavalerite" rajatud suurtele istandustele. Need olid vaesed, kirjaoskamatud ja oskusteta. Kohe oli Virginias loodud klassisüsteem, mida polnud olemas ja mida poleks New Englandis heaks kiidetud. Selle rände ajal oli mehi rohkem kui 4–1 naisi. Suurem osa saabunutest olid vallalised mehed vanuses 15–24 aastat.

Perekonna tunded olid selles rühmas sama tugevad kui puritaanide seas, kuid sisult erinevad. Palju rohkem rõhutati laiendatud perekonda. Sama laiendatud perekonna liikmed kippusid kokku elama ja üksteise lähedale jääma. Elukohaüksuseks oli tuumaperekond, kuid ühinguks laiendatud perekond. Nad kogunesid naabruskondadesse ja matsid oma surnud perekondadesse. (Erinevalt Uus-Inglismaast, kus igas linnas olid ühised matmispaigad.) Mõisteid "vend" ja "sugulane" kasutati lõdvemalt-ja neid ei saa aruannetes alati sõna-sõnalt võtta. Leibkondade hulka kuulusid sageli teenijad, ööbijad ja külalised. Kõiki koheldi perekonnana seni, kuni nad olid leibkonnas. Virginialased ei tundunud võõraste suhtes umbusklikud nagu uus -inglased.

Virginias kippusid pered olema väiksemad-peamiselt seetõttu, et suremus oli palju suurem. Samadel põhjustel oli astmelisi suhteid rohkem. See rühm jagas puritaanide tugevat kohustust abielluda. Poissmehed ja spinnid mõisteti ebaloomulikeks ja ühiskonnale ohtlikeks. Kuid abielu ei olnud leping, kuna Uus -Inglismaal oli see lahutamatu liit, püha sõlm, mida ei saanud lahti teha. Kõik abielud sõlmiti riigikirikus (anglikaani keeles) ja lahutust ei lubatud. Abiellumiseks tuli teha viis vajalikku sammu: abielu, keeld, usutseremoonia, abielupidu, seksuaalne lõpuleviimine. Vaja oli vanemate kirjalikku luba. Armastust ei peetud vajalikuks enne abiellumist. Kui seda varem ei esinenud, eeldati, et see järgneb. Vanematel oli aktiivne roll abieluotsuste tegemisel, kuid nad ei sundinud last tavaliselt vastu tema tahtmist abielluma. Esimese sugulase abielud olid Virginias korras ja neid juhtus sageli. See järgis nende mustrit "hoia seda perekonnas". Abielupeod olid keerukad-erinevalt Uus-Inglismaast, kus neid ei lubatud. Meeste keskmine abiellumisvanus oli umbes sama, mis Uus-Inglismaal, 25–26, kuid naiste puhul oli see noorem, 18–20. Mõned mehed ei abiellunud, sest lihtsalt polnud piisavalt naisi ringi liikumiseks. Seksuaalsed suhted pidid piirduma abieluga, kuid karistused ei olnud nii karmid kui Uus -Inglismaal ja naisi karistati karmimalt kui mehi.

Laste nimetamismustrid järgisid Edela -Inglismaa kombeid. Lapsi nimetati sageli pereliikmete järgi, kuid erinevas mustris kui Uus -Inglismaal. Vanim poeg sai nime isapoolse vanaisa järgi, järgmine poeg emapoolse vanaisa järgi, järgmine isa. Tüdrukute puhul kasutati sama mustrit. Nad kasutasid vähem piibellikke nimesid kui Uus-Inglismaal ja nimetasid sageli lapsi kuningate ja rüütlite jaoks-lemmikud olid Robert, Richard, Edward, George ja Charles. Samuti kasutasid nad kristlike pühakute nimesid, keda Piiblist ei leidu, ja inglise rahvapäraseid nimesid-lemmikud olid Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances ja Alice. Kuid piibellikud Maarja, Elizabethi ja Saara nimed olid sama populaarsed kui Uus -Inglismaal. Harjutati väikelaste ristimist.

Virginia vanemad olid leebemad kui New Englandi vanemad. Lapsi julgustati tegelikult olema tahtejõulised, kuid eeldati, et nad järgivad ka üsna keerukaid enesehinnangurituaale. Vanema patriarhi idee oli väga tugev ja seda ümbritses ka palju rituaale. Koole oli vähe. Eliitklassi lapsed said kodus hariduse ja vaesed jäid kirjaoskamatuteks. Alevikke polnud nagu Uus -Inglismaal. Inimesed asusid istandustele ja seal olid väikesed turukülad.

Parim ülestähenduste allikas on piiskoplik kirik, kus registreeriti kõik ristimised, abielud ja surmad. Oli umbes 100 -aastane periood, kus kõik pidid riigikirikus neid asju tegema, isegi kui mitte liikmed.

Kui soovite neid rühmi põhjalikumalt uurida, soovitan teil lugeda raamatut ALBIONI SEEMT: NELI BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, autor David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Suur osa (kuid mitte kõik) selles materjalis "Retsept" on sellest raamatust.


See populaarne Briti komm saabub Ameerikasse - retseptid

KIRJUTATUD LOAGA

Neljaosaline sari Briti saartelt koloniaal-Ameerikasse suunduvate emigrantide suurimatest rühmadest. Need olid: PURITANID, kes tulid peamiselt Ida -Angliast Massachusettsi lahe kolooniasse aastatel 1629–1640, CAVALIERS JA SERVANTID, kes tulid peamiselt Lõuna -Inglismaalt Virginiasse aastatel 1642–1675 QUAKERS, kes tulid peamiselt Inglise Midlandid Pennsylvaniasse aastatel 1675–1725 ja ŠOTI-Iiri, kes saabusid aastatel 1717–1775 peamiselt Inglismaa/Šoti piirimaadest (mõnikord Põhja-Iirimaa kaudu) Virginiasse (Pennsylvania kaudu).

ALBIONI SEEMES viitas David Fischer sellele teisele sisserändajate rühmale kui "Hätta sattunud kavalerid ja sissetungijad". Kui me edasi läheme, arvan, et näete, miks. Need olid rühm inimesi, kes emigreerusid peamiselt Edela -Inglismaa maakondadest Gloucestershire'ist, Somersetist, Devonshire'ist, Dorsetist, Wiltshire'ist, Hampshire'ist ja paljudest teistest Chesapeake'i lahe piirkonda Virginias ja Marylandis aastatel 1642–1675, tippaeg oli 1650. aastatel. Selle migratsiooni põhjus oli natuke keerulisem. Puritaanid olid Inglismaal kontrolli saanud ja anglikaane kiusati nüüd taga. Nii et mõned lahkunud inimesed tegid seda religioosse tagakiusamise tõttu, täpselt nagu puritaanid. Kuid mõne jaoks oli teisene motivatsioon. Inglismaa pärimisseadused andsid kogu kinnisvara pere vanimale pojale. Mõned neist, kes Inglismaalt lahkusid, olid "eliitperede" teine ​​või kolmas poeg, kes soovisid minna kohta, kus neil võiks olla oma maa.

Alguses meelitas Virginia religioosse taustaga inimesi. Kuid peamine religioon oli Inglismaa kirik (piiskoplik). Pärast seda, kui Virginiast sai kuninglik koloonia, võttis assamblee vastu seadused, mis muutsid Inglismaa kiriku Virginia osariigi kirikuks (1632). Mõne aja jooksul muutus eriusuliste religioonide isikutel Virginiasse üha raskemaks jääda.

Umbes 25 protsenti selle teise rände inimestest olid pärit inglise eliidist-neil oli Inglismaal rikkus, sotsiaalne seisund ja haridus. Nad olid anglikaani kiriku liikmed ja nad olid oma poliitikas kuninglikud. Ülejäänud 75 protsenti olid alamklassidest ja tulid teenistujatena, paljud kui julged teenijad, "kavalerite" rajatud suurtele istandustele. Need olid vaesed, kirjaoskamatud ja oskusteta. Kohe oli Virginias loodud klassisüsteem, mida polnud olemas ja mida poleks New Englandis heaks kiidetud. Selle rände ajal oli mehi rohkem kui 4–1 naisi. Enamik kohale tulnutest olid vallalised mehed vanuses 15–24 aastat.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


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Kommentaarid:

  1. Dainos

    Muidugi. See oli ja minuga. Sel teemal saame suhelda.

  2. Aethretun

    Jah, see pole nii hull. Kuigi .........

  3. Lisabet

    Soovitan teil külastada saiti, kus on palju teavet teid huvitava teema kohta.

  4. Schaddoc

    I apologize, but in my opinion you are wrong.

  5. Marr

    to you abstract thinking

  6. Halbart

    Te eksite. Teen ettepaneku seda arutada. Kirjutage mulle PM -is, see räägib sinuga.



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